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The damaging consequences of pornography have expanded to such an extent that it is more than an individual or family can manage on their own. It is time to recognize it as a public health issue that will take a coordinated effort from many people and organizations to address.

Currently, Senator Todd Weiler is proposing a resolution on this issue to the Utah State Legislature. The claims in this resolution are based on the growing research documenting the effects of pornography on individuals and families.

There are many benefits to passing a resolution declaring pornography to be a public health issue. This resolution will be a good resource when citizens or elected officials are working on projects addressing the harm of pornography. Since the legislature is the highest governing body for the state of Utah, a resolution can set a foundation to base future decisions on.

The National Center on Sexual Exploitation authored the resolution. The text of the resolution and the citations supporting the harmful effects of pornography follow.

Download the text of the resolution with citations

S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis

Recognizing and finding that pornography is a public health hazard leading to a broad spectrum of individual and public health impacts and societal harms.

Pornography is creating a public health crisis and therefore its harms are beyond the capability of the individual to address alone. Rather, efforts to prevent pornography exposure and addiction, to educate individuals and families concerning its harms, and to develop recovery programs must be addressed systemically in ways that hold broader influences accountable in order to counter the sexually toxic environment it perpetuates.

Pornography is contributing to the hyper-sexualization of teens,[1] and even prepubescent children,[2] in our society. Due to the advances in technology and the universal availability of the Internet, young children are exposed to what used to be referred to as hard core (now mainstream) pornography at an alarming rate, with 27% of young adults (age 25-30) reporting that they first viewed pornography before puberty.[3] This is leading to low self-esteem and eating disorders,[4] an increase in problematic sexual activity at younger ages,[5] and an increased desire to engage in risky sexual behavior as young adolescents.[6]

Additionally, children and youth are exposed to pornography that often times serves as their sex education and shapes their sexual templates.[7] Because pornography treats women as objects,[8] and commodities for the viewer’s use, it teaches girls they are to be used and boys to be users[9].

Pornography normalizes violence and abuse of women and children.[10] Pornography treats women and children as objects[11] and often depicts rape and abuse as if it were harmless.[12] Moreover, pornography equates violence towards women and children with sex[13] and pain with pleasure[14] which increases the demand for sex trafficking, prostitution, and child sexual abuse images/child pornography.[15]

Pornography has potential detrimental effects on the user such as: emotional, mental[16] and medical illnesses,[17] shaping deviant sexual arousal,[18] difficulty forming or maintaining intimate relationships,[19] brain development and functioning,[20] and problematic or harmful sexual behaviors,[21] and addiction.[22]

Furthermore, recent research indicates that pornography is potentially biologically addictive which means the user requires more novelty, which is often more shocking material, in order to be satisfied.[23] This has led to increasing themes of risky sexual behaviors, extreme degradation, violence, and child sexual abuse images/child pornography.[24]

Pornography use has a detrimental effect on the family as it is linked to lessening desire in young men to marry,[25] dissatisfaction in marriage,[26] and infidelity.[27]

In recognizing the public health crisis created by pornography the state of Utah is acknowledging the need for education, prevention, research and policy change at the community and societal level in order to address the epidemic that is harming the people of our state and our country as a whole.

References

[1] Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009).

[2] Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009); Dennis Howitt & Kerry Sheldon, The Role of Cognitive Distortions in Paedophilic Offending: Internet and Contact Offenders Compared, 13 PSYCHOLOGY, CRIME & LAW, 469–486 (2007).

[3] Barna Group, The Porn Phenomenon: A Comprehensive New Survey on Americans, the Church, and Pornography, (forthcoming April 2016), https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/barna-group/porn-press-conference#.VrS9OrSJndl.

[4] Amy E. Bonomi, Julianna M. Nemeth, Lauren E. Attenburger, Melissa Anderson, Anastasia Snyder & Irma Dotto, Fiction or Not? Fifty Shades is Associated with Health Risks in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, 23 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH 720–728 (2014).

[5] Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Joris Van Ouytsel, Koen Ponnet, & Michael Walrave, The Associations between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music videos and Their Sexting Behavior, 17 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 772–778 (December 9, 2014); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess, & Robert A. Prentky, Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents, 14 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC NURSES ASSOCIATION 442–456 (2009); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005).

[6] Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Joris Van Ouytsel, Koen Ponnet, & Michael Walrave, The Associations between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music videos and Their Sexting Behavior, 17 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 772–778 (December 9, 2014); Eric W. Owens, Richard J. Behun, Jill C. Manning & Roy C. Reid, The Impact of Internet Pornography on Adolescents: A Review of the Research,  19 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY 1–2 (2012); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle, & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005).

[7] Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess & Robert A. Prentky, Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents, 14 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC NURSES ASSOCIATION 442–456 (2009); (2009); Jane Brown & Kelly L. L’Engle, X-Rated: Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media, 36 COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 129–151 (2009); Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005).

[8] Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007).

[9] Amy E. Bonomi, Julianna M. Nemeth, Lauren E. Attenburger, Melissa L. Anderson, Anastasia Snyder & Irma Dotto, Fiction or Not? Fifty Shades is Associated with Health Risks in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, 23 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH 720–728 (2014); David Horsey, Internet Porn Is an Experiment in Dehumanization, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES (December 15, 2014), http://www.latimes.com/opinion/topoftheticket/la-na-tt-internet-porn-20141215-story.html; Neil Malamuth, Pornography’s Impact on Male Adolescents, 4 ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 563 (2010); Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008); Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007); Silvio Bonino, Silvia Ciairanoa, Emanuela Rabagliettia, Elana Cattelino, Use of Pornography and Self-Reported Engagement in Sexual Violence Among Adolescents, 3 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 265 (2006).

[10] John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi & R. Sean Bannon, Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault, 18 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY: THE JOURNAL OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 212–231 (2011); Neil Malamuth, Pornography’s Impact on Male Adolescents, 4 ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 563 (2010); Gert Martin Hald, Neil M. Malamuth & Carlin Yuen, Pornography and Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Revisiting the Relationship in Non-experimental Studies 36 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 14–20 (2009); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY 15–24 (2009); Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, John M. Bradford, Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders 34 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 341 (2008); Janet Hinson Shope, When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 56 (2004); Josetta L. Carr & Karen M. VanDeusen, Risk Factors for Male Sexual Aggression on College Campuses 15 JOURNAL OF FAMILY VIOLENCE 279 (2000).

[11] APA Report, THE SEXUALIZATION OF GIRLS, (2010); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007); Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci, Mark Genuis & Claudio Violato, A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Pornography, NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR FAMILY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION (Calgary, Alberta, University of Calgary, 2000); Doug McKenzie-Mohr and Mark P. Zanna, Treating Women as Sexual Objects: Look to the (Gender Schematic) Male Who Has Viewed Pornography, 16 PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN 296–308 (1990).

[12] Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun & Rachel Liberman, Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: Content Analysis Update, 16 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1065–1085 (2010).

[13] Catherine A. Simmons, Peter Lehmann, & Shannon Collier-Tennison, Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry to Controlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis, 14 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 406 (2008); D. L. Wheeler, The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. 57(8-A), Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 3691 (1997); Kathy Smiljanich & John Briere, Self-reported sexual interest in children: Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample,  11 VIOLENCE AND VICTIMS 39 (1996); Charlene Y. Senn, The research on women and pornography: The many faces of harm, MAKING VIOLENCE SEXY: FEMINIST VIEWS ON PORNOGRAPHY 179–193 (Diane E. H. Russell 1993).

[14] Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Gary Wilson, The Great Porn Experiment, TED TALKS (May 17, 2012),  http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxGlasgow-Gary-Wilson-The-G-2.

[15] Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Robert Peters, Laura Lederer & Shane Kelly, The Slave and the Porn Star: Sexual Trafficking and Pornography, THE PROTECTION PROJECT JOURNAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS & CIVIL SOCIETY, Fall 2012; Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi & R. Sean Bannon, Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault, 18 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY: THE JOURNAL OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 212–231 (2011); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009); Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, John M. Bradford, Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders 34 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 341 (2008); Dennis Howitt & Kerry Sheldon, The Role of Cognitive Distortions in Paedophilic Offending: Internet and Contact Offenders Compared 13 PSYCHOLOGY, CRIME & LAW 467 (2007); Catherine Mackinnon, Talk given at Pornography: Driving the Demand in International Sex Trafficking Conference: Pornography as Trafficking (May 14, 2005); Evelina Giobbe, Mary Harrigan & Jayme Ryan, A FACILITATOR’S GUIDE TO PROSTITUTION: A MATTER OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (Denise Gamache, WHISPER, Inc. 1990);

[16] Thomas Edward Kaspera, Mary Beth Shorta & Alex Clinton Milam, Narcissim and Internet Pornography Use 41 JOURNAL OF SEX & MARITAL THERAPY 481 (2015); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Thomas M. Mick & Eric Hollander, Impulsive-Compulsive Sexual Behavior, 11 CNS SPECTRUMS 944 (2006).

[17] Mary Anne Layden, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Sexual Obesity: Research on the Public Health Crisis of Pornography (July 14, 2015); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014.

[18] Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008).

[19] Thomas Edward Kaspera, Mary Beth Shorta & Alex Clinton Milam, Narcissim and Internet Pornography Use 41 JOURNAL OF SEX & MARITAL THERAPY 481 (2015); Malcolm & Naufal, 2014; Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson & Matt Ezzell, Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, December, 2014; Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014); Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004).

[20] Simon Kuhn & Jurgen Gallinat, Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption: The Brain on Porn 71 JAMA PSYCHIATRY 827 (2014); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with FosB as a Key Mediator
33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addiction – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013).

[21] Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson & Matt Ezzell, Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, December, 2014; Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008); Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Noris, William George, Joel Martell & Julia Heiman, Men’s Likelihood of Sexual Aggression: The Influence of Alcohol, Sexual Arousal, and Violent Pornography, 2006; Malamuth, Centini, Repeated Exposure to Violent and Nonviolent Pornography: Likelihood of Raping Ratings and Laboratory Aggression Against Women, 2006; Mick & Hollander, Impulsive-Compulsive Sexual Behavior 32 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 581 (2006); Venessa Vega & Neil M. Malamuth, Predicting Sexual Agression: The Role of Pornography in the Context of General and Specific Risk Factors, 33 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 104 (2006); Janet Hinson Shope, When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women 10 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 56 (2004); Raquel Bergen & Kathleen Bogle, Exploring the Connection between Pornography and Sexual Violence 15 VIOLENCE AND VICTIMS  227 (2000); Azy Barak, William Fisher, Sandra Belfry & Darrel Lashambe, Sex, Guys, and Cyberspace: Effects of Internet Pornography and Individual Differences on Men’s Attitudes toward Women 11 JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & HUMAN SEXUALITY 63 (1999).

[22] Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addcition – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with FosB as a Key Mediator
33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton & Clark Watts, Pornography Addiction; A Neuroscience Perspective 2 SURGICAL NEUROLOGY INTERNATIONAL 2:19 2011; NORMAN DOIGE, Chapter 4: Acquiring Tastes and Loves: What Neuroplasticity Teaches About Sexual Attraction and Love, in THE BRAIN THAT CHANGES ITSELF (December 18, 2007).

[23] Id.

[24] Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun & Rachel Liberman, Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: Content Analysis Update, 16 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1065–1085 (2010).

[25] Michael Malcolm & George Naufal, Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? INSTITUTE OF THE STUDY OF LABOR (November 2014).

[26] PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004).

[27] Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014).

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